Dhasion of iVHi^.^ Secft'ona] Library



























" Thyself how woudi'ous then, Unsijeakable I who sitt'st above these heavens To us invisible, or dimly seen In these Ihy lowest works."






' U N I 0.

" Tliy food shall be Tlie fivsh l)i-ook mussels."


Unw R.I

Sowerby.Jd et liih

Vmcau Brooks IrnjT

U N I 0 .

Genus UN lO. Ret:.

■J>sta Iii/ms marf/ari/ncca, (pqiiii-alrh, sapis-viui' ni,r-qi(ilnte- rnlU, pphkrmhh- cvii-yjirna.iemper indnta ; U.jammitam exteniinii ,• cnrilo variabilh, deidi/jiis antkii vd ceil- iralihits ii< vtrdqne vahuln 1-3 instrudus, srrpnis etiam lamellis lateralibus vi-l jmiicis pmterea mimiliis; im- pressiones muscnlares d/KP, poxtica composita.

iSlR-11 pearly within, equivdve, almost always inccimlateral, constantly clotlied with a conspicuous ciuderuiis ; liirament. external ; hinge variable, furnished with one or f.vo central or anterior teeth in each valve, and strengthened besides, for the most part, by lateral or posterior lamellae; muscular sears two. the hinder one composite. Somewhat more than a hundred years have elapsed

since LinuEnus first arranged shells in an artificial, yet simple, methodical, and easily comprehensible manner.

mcrly disgraced the Proceedings of the Zoological Society,

and still appear in those of the Academy of Natural

j Sciences of I'liiladelphia, the few characters there specified

i would equally apply to a score of other shells. An ordi-

1 nary Uiiio, devoid of any striking peculiarity of sculpture

j or of contour, cannot possibly be determined without the

I aid of a really good figure, or of a description so long and

' careful that few modern naturalists have the ])atience to

elaborate it. Say's earlier species (those in the American

edition of Nicholson's Cyclopedia) are so ill defined that

even his own countrymen difler as to what shells he wished

1 to indicate.

I It is, perhaps, to be regretted tiiat so extensive a genus ' as Unio was not subdivided in the present work, and the ! name restricted to such species only as are provided witii lateral laraellse, but the broad Lamarckian divisions, 1 adopted in the earlier volumes of the ' Iconica,' compelled I tlie author, despite of his gradually changed views of

Since that period,' certain early-appreciated and natural ! natural groups, to preserve the outlines, at least, of his oenen («nch as typical Mya) have not even tripled in the j original design. Almmodonta, with its two prunary and number of known species, whdst the Uuiom-s, of which „o lateral i,,i\., Monocondyl^a, with merely one primary two or three only were distinguished by the (^,reat Sys- | tooth and no lamelte, are easUy distinguishable from the tematist are now known to us by hundreds. Indeed, ' typical U.mm. As io P.eudodcn, with its single rud.- methin- like a thousand so-called species have already mentary compressed tubercle in each valve, it had, perhaps,

better have been wholly relegated to Anodon. Ingunoiloi, and Phgioduu, each based upon one shell only, are of less present importance.

been described, and every year that indefatigable veteran, Isaac Lea (the loving patron of the Naiades), adds bewd- dering varieties, forms, or species (it is doubted which) to the conglomerated aggregate. It is more than probable that not one-half of the presumed species of ovir North American cousins will stand the crucial test of eritieism ; yet many of their really distinct forms have been here unavoidably omitted, from want of specimens for delinea- tion. Scarcely any of the shell-collectors of England care for such sombre-hued objects ; hence the omnivorous cabinets of Taylor, Hanley, and the British Museum, are almost our sole sources of study.

Independently of the remarkable diversity of outline the male and female of each species (ditt'erences far as we know, are comparatively imperceptibh other genera), priority of nomenclature involves a never- ending investigation ; for Conrad and Lea (both natu- ralists of eminent ability) for the most part claim prece- dence of eacli other on no common ground for arl)itration : the former more usually from prior publication in |)rint tlie latter from prior readings at some scientific meeting As to sucli brii I' and utterly iiuidequalr diagnoses as for

October, ISOS

The United States of North Am great bulk of the recorded species

ca now furnish the

South Auieriea, if

ever investigated with equal energy, will probably yield

us as many distinctive forms. Asia (China has, perliaps,

to be excepted) seems comparatively poor, since British

j India, although its conehologieal fauna has been fairly

worke'd out by such enthusiastic naturalists as Theobald,

Benson, and the Blandfords, scarcely adds more than a

i score to our list. Europe, Africa, and Australasia (the

' two latter, possibly, from want of exploration) are alike

h, so 1 sparingly provided with Naiades.


Species 1. (Mus. Cuming.) o BOYKINIANUS. Un. tentd mafjis iiiiviisn' rrassu, 1,1 medio veiilricosa, valde uMijiiituUrali, uhuialo-sub-^ tri,iond,antici perbrevi angustatd el rolundald, poslice lata depressd et alatd, olivaceo-nigresci plicis vudtis obliquis saljamwtis aut Jl,.

oneolore, (d srrjie

UNIO.— Plate

fiircalis) uiii/ii/iie uniald ; margarila albklo-candes- ceiUe ; denliljKs c<irdiiiaHbu.i in utrCujHe valvuld 2, ereclls, triguitis, lacinudk ; laiiicUh lalerallbiis cur- vad-s, elcrat'is. I'ioykin's Unio. Shell more or loss tiiick, ventricose in the middle, very inequilateral, subtriangularly obo- vate, ill front very short narrowed and rounded, behind broad depressed and winged, of a uniform blackish-olive, eveiywhere adorned with numerous slanting subarcuated or flexuous (and often forked) folds ; nacre bluish-white ; primary teeth two in each valve, erect, triangular, jagged ; lateral lamellae curved and elevated. Lea, Trans. Amer. Ph. Soc. ser. 2. vol. viii. (Obs. on

Unio, vol. iii. p. 46), pi. 18. f. %i. Rah. Chaltachoocliee River, Georgia, and Warrior River, Alabama, U. J>. The hinder dorsal area is broadly concave, and the liinge-margin is only broad where it serves as a base for the primary teeth. In the closely allied lieroi the folds near the ligament are small, narrow, and numerous.

Species 2. (Mus. Cumin- )

.\s the shell represented proves to be a dwarf form of Unio fragosus, of which a fine and characteristic example has been delineated in Plate VII. (Fig. 27), the reader is referred to the description there appended.

Species 3. (Mus. Cuming.) Unio Schoolcraftensis. Uh. tedd cra.mn.icuM, s/ib- ventrkosn, subquadrato-rotundd, vi.t inceqiitlateraU, ntitici late rotundatd, posiice sMiangulald, n'ltida, Jlavd, radio perviridi lata et brevi in medio sujieriii pictS, iuberculia planulnlis salisque magnis in medio infenie, alikqiie miuoribiis in et supra eostam nmbo- nalern suhangulatani (in e.mnjilis odnllix) sparsim ornatd ; umtjonibm enuneiililin\ . nuinjarild albido-

cterulea ,

nine cardiiioli di-nlilii.



libus, lamelliiiqiie lateraHbus i:u/idi.s et ri..r elungatis mnuito. Schoolcraft's Unio. Shell tiiickish, subventrico.se, squarish-orbicular, broadly rounded in front, subbiau- gular behind, of a shining bright yellow, painted

above with a short broad central green ray, here and there adorned below (in full-grown specimens) with central tubercles which are flattened and rather large, and on or beyond the siibangular umbonal ridge with other smaller ones; umboes projecting; nacre bluish- white ; hinge-margin broad, strengthened with ver- tical triangular teeth, and strong, scarcely elongated, lateral lamellre.

Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. scr. 2. vol. v. p, 87 (Obs. on Unio, vol. i.), pi. 3. f. 9.

Ilab. Fox River, Green Bav, N. America.

Species 4. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio verrucosus. Un. tedd crassd, depressi/isni/ii, ui medio return, oblongo-subqiiadratd, valde inrrqnihiti-- rali, postice subbiangulatd, olivaced concolon-, a,ilr eostam umbonalem elevatnm rerriicis coiifertissimix uiidigue sculptd, et ultra earn plicis divergeiitib/is sub- arcuatis oblique ornatd; margine venlrali antic'!- acclivi, postice retuso ; natibus parris, o/jliquis, rixque promiiiidis ; margariid albo-nrgented ; margine cnr- dinali Into ; dentibus curdinalibus erectis, subtrigvnis, laciuiatis ; Inmellis la/i-rulibiis longis rei-tis, der/i- vibiis.

TuE WARTY Unio. Shell thick, rather depressed, in- dented in the middle, squarish-oblong, very inequi- lateral, subbiangular behind, of a uniform olive- green, before the raised umboual ridge everywhere embossed with most crowded warts, and beyond it slantingly adorned with somewhat curved divergent folds ; ventral edge rising in front, indented behind ; beaks small, slanting, scarcely projecting; nacre silvery white; hinge-margin broad; primary teetii erect, subtriangular, jagged ; lateral lamelhv long, straight, oblique.

Rafinesque, Mon. Coq. de la Riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. v. pi. SI. f. l(i-12. U/iio tuberculatits, Barnes. Theliderma pwstulata, Swainson.

Hab. River Ohio, N. America.

The coloured epidermis is so thin that the crowded tubercles (which are elongated and almost perpendicular near the ridge) often become whitish from abrasion. There are two sets of folds ; those upon the narrow con- cave space adjacent to the ligament are much the smaller.


Vincent Brooks.lmp

UN 10

Species 5. (Miis. Cuming.)

Unio PLiCATUS. Un. tedii subquadrato-ovatii, postice coMjire«sii et decUvi-truncatd, umhomhus-prominentibiis, amjj/is, tumidis, oblique perainpUter pUcatis, pUcis si- Huosis, prope ad marginem vmtralem ohliqui desceii- dentibus ; epidermide fidvo-yiiyrd.

The plaited Ukio. Sliell somewhat squarely orate, posteriorly compressed, and slopingly truncated, um- boes prominent, large, swollen, obliquely very largely plaited, plaits sinuous, descending obliquely nearly to the ventral margin ; epidermis fulvous-black.

Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 1. f. 8. Unio Peruviana, Lamarck. Unio rariplicata, Lamarck. Unio Bomhei/ana, Valenciennes.

Hab. North America.

Cliaracterized by the swollen proniinence of the uraboes,

and iMldness uf the oblique sinuous plaits.

Species 6. (ilus. Cuming.) Ukio Kleinianus. Un. teddobtusi; trigond, conipressius- cidd, postice declivi-truncatd, nndique nitide divarica- liin liralo-plicatu, plicis parvis, nuinerosis, inteniitiis concentrice tenninidcatis et siriatis ; epidi-rmide fidoo- olivaced. Klein's Unio. Shell obtusely triangular, rather com- pressed, posteriorly slopingly truncated, neatly diva- ricately ridge-plaited throughout, plaits small, nu- merous, interstices concentrically finely grooved and striated ; epidermis fulvous-olive. Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. Second Series, vol. 10. pi.

17. f. 18; Obs. vol. 5. p. 21. Hab. Suwanee River, Florida, North America.

When Mr. Lea, in 1852, described this pretty species, he remarked that the beaks of the only two specimens then known to him were much eroded, and that he should suppose " that, in perfect or young specimens the folds would extend to the apex, and present a fine appearance." Mr. Cuming's specimen, here figured, has much of the character Mr. Lea anticipated.

Species 7. (Mus. Cuming.) Uxio c.elatus. Un. ((fstd lati sccurifornii, comipresm, medio concavo-contradd, l/vvigaid, versus margines posticum et ventralem radiatim verrucoso-rugatd ; epi- dermide nigricante-viridi, Inteo linctd el variegald. The carved Unio. Shell broadly wedge-shaped, com- pressed, concavcly contracted in the middle, smooth, radiately wart-wrinkled towards the posterior and ventral margins ; epidermis dark green, stained ami variegated with yellow. CoNKAD, Frcshw. Shells, p. 29. f. 3, -1. Hab. North America.

A prettily-coloured wedge-shaped shell, compressly contracted in the middle, smooth throughout, except at the posterior and ventral margins, where sculpture is de- veloped in strong wart-wrinkles.

Species 8. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio ueros. Un. testa subquadrato-ovatd, postice late expansd, snbflabelliformi, circa nmbones crispato-verru- cosd, deinde oblique perampliter pUcatu, plicis siuuosis, superioribns minoribns, versus marginem dorsalem ra- diantibus ; epidermide fusco-nigrd.

The hero Unio. Shell somewhat squarely ovate, pos- teriorly broadly expanded, rather fan-shaped, crisply verrucose around the uraboes, then obliquely very largely plaited, plaits sinuous, upper smaller, radia- ting towards the dorsal margin ; epidermis fuscous- bla'ck.

Say, ' Disseminator,' Lea, Syuops. p. 20. Unio mnltiplical/is, Lea.

Hab. North America.

]\Ir. Lea claims the adoption of his name of U. midti- pticatus for this species on the grounds that Mr. Say, after having described it in the ' Disseminator ' with the name of U. lieros, abandoned the species in his ' American Con- chology ' as being a variety of U. undulatus. If Mr. Lea considered Mr. Say's original view to be the right one, he should have reinstated the original name.

AuL'ust, 18C4.


Sawerby.del etlith


U N I 0.

Species 9. (Fig. 9, and 12, Mus. Cuming.) Unio tubeuculatus. Uii. testa orbicidari, compressiiis- cidd, posiice Jlexitoso-lrwncatd, medio et latere postico de umbonibus ad margines rude irregulariter verru- cosis ; epidermide fuho-oUvaced. The tubekcled Unio. Shell orbicular, rather com- pressed, posteriorly flexuously truncated, middle and posterior side irregularly rudely warted from the umlioes to the margins; epidermis fulvous-olive. llAFiNEsauE, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. 5. p. 287. Unio verrticusus, Barnes. Unio titiercidosus, Valenciennes. Hnb. North America.

The wart tubercles in this species are peculiarly rudely developed, and the compressed flexuous truncation of the posterior side of the shell is also a specific character.

Species 10. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio turgidus. U/i. testa siibqiiadrato-roi/indald, pos- tici-flexuosd, decUvi-truiicatd, medio subcontractd, medio et circa nmbones concentrice Hoduso-luberculutd ; epi- dermide nigricante-oUvacen.

The swollen Unio. Shell somewhat squarely rotun- date, posteriorly tlexuous, and slopingly truncated,

ratlicr contracted in the middle, concentrically no-

dosely tnbercled in the middle and around the um-

boes ; epidermis blackish-olive. Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1834, vol. (>. pi. .5. f. 11.

Obs. vol. 2. p. 11.

Uiiio Mortoni, Conrad. Hah. New Orleans, North America.

Rather flexuously contracted on the posterior side, the sculpture beitig in the form of concentrically inclined no-

Species 11. (Mus. Cuming.) Unio apiculatus. Uh. testa subquadrul.o-ocatd, pMi id Jtexuoso-aiigulatd, deinde declivi-truncatd, medio con- cavo-coiitractd, undigue nitide rugoso-nodulatd ,■ cpi- derw ide fidvo-olivaced. Thk bee-covered Unio. Shell somewhat squarely ovate, posteriorly flexuously angled, then slopingly truncated, concavely contracted in the middle, neatly rugosely noduied throughout; epidermis fulvous- olive. Say, Amer. Couch, pi. 52. llab. North America.

ricsembling the preceding species in form, but uiore ([uadrately flexuous, and beautifully sculptured tliroughout.



Vincent Brooksjmp



Species 13. (.AIus. Cuming.)

Unio ATR0C0ST.4.TUS. Un. tes(d ovatd, oblique subjlahelli- fond, circa umbones irregulariter crispaio-nigatu, de- inde oblique ampUter plicato-costatd ; epidermide nigra.

The black-ribbed Unio. -Shell ovate, obliquely some- j what fan-shaped, irregularly crispately wrinkled 1 around the umboes, then obliquely largely plicately ribbed ; epidermis black.

IjEA, Trans. Amcr. Phil. See. Second Series, vol. 10. pi. j 2. f. 5 ; Obs. vol. 4.. p. -l-i.

Hab. Alabama, North America.

There is very little in this species, beyond the fact of I

its being of a less oblong-square form, to distinguish it

Species 14. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio sparsus. Un. testa suborbiculari-ovaid, depressd, postice obtime angulaid et Jiexiioso-conipresm, laviiis- culd, obsolete sparsim verrucosa, poslici subverrucosd ; epidermide ftdvo-oUvaced.

The sprinkled Unio. Shell somewhat orbicularly ovate, depressed, posteriorly obtusely -angled, and ttexuously compressed, rather smooth, obsoletely sparingly wartetl, posteriorly rathei- warted ; epider- mis fulvous-olive.

Lea, Trans. Amcr. Phil. Soc. Second Series, vol. 8. pi. 25. f. 58 ; Obs. vol. 3. p. 82.

Hab. East Tennessee, North America.

Very similar in form to IT. tubercuhifus, and not

unlike the young of that species.


Species 15. (ilus. Cuming.)

Unio Phillipsii. Un. testa ohhmyo-quadratd, medio subcontractd, postice peranipliler expnusd, biangulatd, ad angulos et versus marginem promiscue lumido- tuberculatd ; epidermide virescenle, olivaceo radialim fasciatd et lineatd.

Phillips' Unio. Shell oblong-square, rather contracted in the middle, posteriorly very largely expanded, two-angled, promiscuously tumidly tubercled at the angles and towards the margin ; epidenuis greenish, radiately banded and lineatcd with olive.

Conkad, Monog. p. 9. pi. 5. f. 1.

Hub. North America.

Characterized by an unusual expansion of the posterior side, which is bi-angled, and rudely tumidly tubercled on the angles.

Species 16. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio costatl's. Un. testa oblotigo-ovatd, postice subquad- rato-productd, medio oblique sinuose plicato-costatd, cos/is versus marginem poslicum corrugaio-radiantibus; epidermide fulvo-olivaced.

The ribbed Unio. Shell oblong-ovate, posteriorly ra- ther squarely produced, obliquely sinuously plicately ribbed in the middle, ribs corrugately radiating to- wards the posterior margin ; epidermis fulvous-olive.

Rafinesque, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1830, vol. 5. p. 28 7. Uuio undulatus, Barnes. North America.


This species appears to differ from its congeners in not being crispately warted about the umboes.



Vmrent Brooksimp

^ \

UNI 0.

Species 17. (Mus. Cuming-.) Uxio TUAPEZOIDES. Lhu teslil ohlongo-trape:oided, 2)0B- tice conspicue (umido-anr/iilalct, deiitde declivi-tnm- cald, wnbonibus compressis, circa nmbones siibobsolete crhpalo-verrucosd, peroMique breviter pUcato-costatd ; epidermlde nigra. Thk tkafezoid Unio. Sliell oblong-trapozoid, poste- riorly conspicuously tumidly angled, then slopingly truncated, umboes compressed, around the umboes rather obsoletely crispately warted, very obliquely shortly plicately ribbed; epidermis black. Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. iv. pi. 3 ; Obs. vol. i. p. 79.

Unio iiderruptns, Say. Hab. Lake St. Joseph, Louisiana, North America.

Of a particularly characteristic trapezoid fonn, but par- taking, nevertheless, of the sculpture of Z7. heros and its congeners.

Species 18. (Mus. Cuming.) Unio aspek. Un. testa suI)quadrato-globosd, medio con- cavo-coiitractd, postice obtuse aiigidaldet declivi-trun- catd, biradiatini nodoso-tubercidatd, prope marginem, posticum radiaiim rtigatd ; epidermide fidvo-olivaced. The rough Unio. Shell somewhat squarely globose, concavely contracted in the middle, posteriorly ob- tusely angled and slopingly truncated, biradiately nodosely tubercled, radiately wrinkled near the pos- terior margin ; epidermis fulvous-olive. Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. iv. pi. 9. f. 13 ; Obs.

vol. i. p. 95. Hnb. Alabama, North America.

Besides the two conspicuous rays of tubercles noted in the foregoing description, there are indications of pus- tules which in some specimens may probably be more de-

Spoeies 19. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio caPEU.^TUS. Un. testa oblongo-seciiriformi, antice brevissimd, postice compresse prodnctd, concentrice ir- regnlririter caperutd, medio olisolel'e radiaiim iioda- latd fnho-oticaced, intense viridi ; radiatiin undidato- lineatd.

WRINKLED Unio. Shell ovately-oblong wedge- shaped, anteriorly very short, posteriorly compressly produced, concentrically irregularly wrinkled, obso- letely radiately noduled in the miildle, fulvous-olive, radiately undulately lineated with dark- green. , Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. Second Series, vol. .-c. pi. 5. f. 14; Obs. vol. iv. p. 49.

Hub. Tennessee, North America.

Extremely iiRnpiilateral, the shell being as short on the anterior side as in Bonax.



Species 20. (INIus. Cuming.) Unio Elliottii. Un. testa suborbiculari, postice sublate

expansu, oldique perampliler costald, postice radiatim

costatd, umbonibus paroiuscidis ; epidermide nigra. Elliott's Unio. Shell nearly orbicular, posteriorly ra-

tiier broadly expanded, obliquely very largely ribbed,

posteriorly radiately ribbed, umboes rather small;

epidermis black. Lea, Pro. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, IS.V.. p. 20;^;

.(ourn. Second Series, vol. iv. pi. 7 ; Obs. vol. vi. p.

54. Hub. Othcalooga Creek, Gordon County, Georgia. North


A fine, bold spe dar in form, thou rior side.

L'S of the r. heros 1 rather broadly t\\

August, 1S64.

UnUH. 17.


Vincent- BToo\s.lnip,

UN 10.

Plate VI.

Species 21. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio Foesheyi. Un. testa mibquadmto-orliadari, pos- tice subobscnre liangidatd, deinde conipresse jiroditdd, iindiqiie copiose nodoso-tuberculatd ; fidvo-ollvaceCi.

Fokshey's Unio. Shell somewhat squarely orbicu- lar, posteriorly rather obscurely two-angled, then compressly produced, copiously nodosely tubcrckJ throughout ; fulvous-olive.

Le.\, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. Second Series, vol. iv. pi. 60. f. 182 ; Obs. vol. viii. p. 39.

Hob. Texas and Alabama, North America.

An extremely pretty species, doubly angled and flexu-

ously compressed on the posterior surface, and studded

throughout with neat, nodose tubercles.

Species 22. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio FLEXUOSUs. Un. testa ovatd vd quadrato-ovatd, Iceviuscidd, medio et postice late rude cosiatd, costis ad extremitates iuterdum prodiwtis et lobatis ; fuho-oU- vaced vel brumied, virldi interdum rudiatim liueatd.

The flexuous Unio. Shell ovate or squarely-ovate, rather smooth, broadly rudely ribbed in the middle and posteriorly, ribs sometimes lobed at the extre- mities, sometimes produced aud lobed ; fulvous-olive or brown, sometimes radiately liueated with green.

Rafinesque, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. v. p. 287. Unio foliatits, Hildreth.

Hab. North America.

The more flexuous form of tliis species is the curious

lobed variety of which we give a representation at Plate

XIII. Fig. 53. According to recent observations it is

said to be the male of the species, the form here figured

beins; the female.

Species 23. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio REFLEXUS. Un. testa subtriyono-ovatd, postice ob- scure flexiioso-aiigidatd, taviusculd, medio radiatim tu- berciiliilii, Inherciilis distantibus, compressis, quasi cor- nulix, (iri'ii liijinui'iiH rufjaid ; fulvo-oUvaced.

The EEi'Li.rcED I'mo. Shell somewhat triangularly ovate, posteriorly obscurely flexuously angled, rather smooth, radiately tubercled in the middle, tubercles distant, compressed, as if horned, ligamentary area wrinkled ; fulvous-olive.

Rafinesque, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1830, vol. v. p. 287. Unio cornutus, Barnes.

Hub. North America.

The tubercles have a peculiar pinched growth, the inter- stices between them being hollowed.

Species 2-t. (Mus. Cuming.) Unio quadratus. Un. testa suborbiculari-ovatd, }iostice obscure biangulatd et compresse Jlexuosd, radiatim ver- rucoso-tuberculatd, (ubercidis promiscui.s, hie illic dis- tantibns ; riri'sn'iilt'-iiHrnccd. The saUARE Imo. Shrll somewhat orbicularly ovate, posteriorly ob>cunl\ biaiigled and compressly Hexu ous, radiately verrueosely tubercled, tubercles promis- cuous, here and there distant ; greenish-olive. Rafinesque, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. v. p. 287. Unio quadrulus, Say. Unio asperrimus, Lea. Rab. Ohio river. North America.

A tine, posteriorly flexuous species, in which the radia- ting warts are curiously promiscuous in their development

August, ISG-t.


Sowerbydelet hth

"^^Ticent Brooka Imp

U N I 0.

Species 25. (Mus. Cuming)

Unio metanevek. I'll, testa subquadrato-orblculari, gibbosiuscula, postice Jlexuoso-angulatd, delude com- presse truncatd, undique irregulariter nodoso-tubercu- latd et verrucosa ; fulvo-otivaced, viridi variegata.

The settler Unio. Shell somewhat squarely-orbi- cular, rather gibbous, posteriorly flesuously augled, then compressly truncated, irregularly nodosely tu- bercled and warted throughout ; fulvous-olive, varie- gated with green.

Rafinesque, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. IS-'O, vol. v. p. 287. Unio nodosHs, Barnes. Unio rugosHS, Barnes. Telederma metanevra, Swain son.

Hab. North America.

There is a characteristic irregularity about the sculpture of this species.

Species 26. (Fig. a, b, Mus. Cuming.) Unio prasinus. Un. testa ovatd, regidariter convexd, postice. obtuse aiigidari, delude cornpresse truncatd, lavigatd, in medio et versus angulum obtuse verrucosa, postice radlaflm rugatd ; fidvo-ollvaced, ad iimbones viridi radintd. The leek-green Unio. Shell ovate, regularly convex, posteriorly obtusely angular, then compressly trun-

cated, smooth, obtusely warted in tlie middle and towards the angle, posteriorly radiately wrinkled ; fulvous-olive, rayed with green at the und)oes. Conrad. Ilab. North America.

Mr. Lea quotes this species as being a variety of Z7. Schoolcrnfttnsis. The two specimens here figured, received by Mr. Cuming from a very good authority on the sub- ject, Mr. Anthony, lead me to think that it must be dis- tinct. There is a resemblance in colour and radiation, but an important difference ill form, and in the character of the sculijture.

Species 27. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio fragosus. Un. testa suborbiculari, gibbosiuscutd, postice obtuse angulatd, delude cornpresse expansd, um- iioulbus .lubprominulis, undique promlscue tuberculato- verrucosn, postice radiatd; fulvo-olivaced, viridi tinetd.

TuE ROUGH Unio. Shell somewhat orbicular, rather gibbous, posteriorly obtusely angled, then compressly expanded, umboes rather prominent, promiscuously tubercularly warted throughout, posteriorly rayed ; fulvous-olive, tinged with green.

Conrad, ilonog. pi. 6. f. 3.

I.lab. North America.

Of an orbicularly expanded form, sculptured in a pe-

culiarlv bold and lu'omiscuous manner.


(Iticent Brooks.Imp

U N I 0 .

Plate VIII.

Species 2S. (Miis. Cuming.) LImo cypHIUS. Un. testa ohliqui ovatd, aiitice hrevi, postice compressa, suLattmuald, concmtrice rude ni- fjatd, ill medio radialim ol/tuse luberculald, pallide fulco-olivaced. The taulted Unio. Shell obliquely-ovate, autei-iorly short, posteriorly compressed and somewhat altenu- ated, concentrically rudely wrinkled, in the middle radiately obtusely tuberoled ; pale fulvous-olive. K.\FiNES(jUE, Men. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Geu. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. v. p. 287. Uiiio JEsopus, Green. Hub. North America.

An oblique, rudely-sculptured shell, generally of a pe- culiar pallid-olive colour.

Species 29. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio brom.as. Un. testa oblique sultpi/rifundi, anlu-i brevissimd, postice curvald, concentrici niijuld, in me- dio radiatim obsolete nodulatd ; fulvo-olivaced, viridi radiatiiii variegatd.

The duo.medaey Unio. Shell obliquely somewhat pear- shaped, anteriorly very short, posteriorly curved, con- ceutrically -wrinkled, in the middle radiately obso- letely noduled; fulvous-olive, radiately variegated with green.

Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. v. pi. 10, f. 29 ; Obs. vol. 1. p. 182.

Hub. Tennessee, North America.

Of a characteristic obliquely-curved growth, the um- boes standing out like two humps.

Species 30. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio striatiis. Uh. testa oblique suborbiciduri, postice rotundato-producld, concenlrice irregidanter nodoso- tuberculatd ; ulivaceo-bnii/ned.

TuR STRIATED Unio. Shell obliqucly suborbicular, pos- teriorly rotuudately produced, concentrically irregu- larly nodosely tubercled ; olive-brown.



Phvs. Brux.

Uiho Cooper

'ab. North Amei


Copiously marl ith irre-uiar pii

itric stnaB of growth, and


Species 31. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio cicatricosus. Uti. testa elougato-eordatd, aiitice brevissimd, postice valde productd, cunceittrice ruijutd, medio spursini obtuse verrucosa ; fulvo-bruiuied.

The cicatriced Unio. Shell elongately-cordate, ante- riorly very short, posteriorly very much produced, concentrically wrinkled, in the middle sparingly ob- tusely warted ; fulvous-brown.


Unio varicosus. Lea.

Ilab. North America.

The normal form of this species will be found at Phde XII L Fig. -tU. Its extremest variation of growth is re- presented in the characteristic specimen here figured, in which the umboes arc prominently terminal and beaked, and its posterior side very nuieh produced.

August, 1SG4.



Vmcent, Brooks Jinp

U N 10

Sjjecies 32. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio NODULOSUS. Uii. tesld eloni/ato-ovalti, aiitice Lre- vissimd, postlce compresse alatd, ad umbones et ad aream posilcam rude corrmjatd, in medio pfomi.^ci/e verrticoso-nodulosd ; oUvaceo-nigrd, sericed.

The knotted Unio. Shell elongately ovate, anteriorlv very short, posteriorly compressly winged, at the

umboes and on the posterior

in the niidille promiscuously

black, silky. Mya nodidosa, Wood, Gen. Conch.

4; Ind. Test. pi. 2. f. 2 'J.

Unio Hodithsiis, Lea. JIai. China.

A beautiful silky- duced wing-like lor of the genus.


dely « jduled

olive- f. 1 to

ntca spc (lislincl

Species 3a. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio lachrymosus. Uu. testa quadrato-OEatd, mbtra- pezoided, in medio concavo-impreHsd, Iceviyatd, deiiide acute angidatd, pustice compresse triiiinild, lateribus ambobus copiose mimiie tuberculatis ; hitesceute, cie- ri'.leo-viridi tinctd et varieyatd.

The lachrymose Unio. Shell squarely ovate, some- what trapezoid, in the middle concavely impressed, smooth, then sharply ^mulnl, ]Ki>tcriorly compressly truncated, both siih- iopi,,ii-l\ minutely tnbercled ; yellowish, stained ami \:in. -^itt d with bluc-grecn.

Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. iii. pi. G. f. 8 ; Obs. vol. i. p. 14.

Ilah. North America.

and very neatly dropping like t


Species 34. (JIus. Cuming.)

Unio GUANIFERCS. JJu. iesid subroliuidd. /mslich i.indav compresse Imncatd, medio el jju-t/ice /iibcrrii/iilo-jio- didusd, uodidis s/iarus ,• rnr.sir„/r-,jlifami, intii.-: ciipreo-piirjiuruscente.

The grained Unio. Shell nearly round, posteriorly moderately compressly truncated, in the middle and on the posterior side, tubercularly nodnled, nodules

scattered ; greeui^h-olivi-, inti

rior CO), pel


Lea, Trans. Amer. i'liil. Soe. vol.

1. pi. UJ. t

.•3, 4; Obs.


vol. ii. p. 69. pi. 19. f. (50.


Ilab. Ohio River, North America.

The tubercular nodules of this

sjiecies ai

e peculiarly

scattered, and always absent IVoi

1 the ante

rior side uf

the shell.

Species 3."i. [M\\&. Cuiiiiiig.)

Unio VERPLICATUS. Vh. ti-.da sidjlriynno-oratd, j/os/ici- expaiisd, superne subahila, uhliiine mile corrmjuto- plicatd, plicis ad htiis poxfirniii radiunlihus : iiitfiixe olivaceo-uiyrd.

The mucu-plaITED Uxio. Shell somewh.-it triangnhu-ly ovate, posteriorly expanded, slightly winged at the upper part, oblicpiely rudely wrinkle-plaited, plaits on the posterior side radiating ; dark olive-black.

Conrad, Anthony, MS. in Mus. CnmiLig.

Ilab. North America.



There ap]


in this species an indication to become



U N 10


36. (Mub. Cuming.) >. Uii. testa triyono-ovald, subtequl-

Unio sesiigr\>

lateralis concept rice rude plicatd, imdiquc dense verrii- mso-i/raiiald, grains ad latiis atiticum evaiiidis ; sor- ilnli' otieaced, intiis cupreo-pitrpured .

TiiK n.iLF-Git.MNED Unio. Shell triangularly ovate, nearly equilateral, concentrically rudely plicated, closely wart-grained throughout, grains fading away on the anterior side ; dull olive, interior coppery- purple.

Philippi, Mag. de Zool. 18-i3, p. US.

Hab. Mexico.

This, and the species given at Fig. 37 an a characteristic granulated type of the ge Mexico.

39, represent Lis peculiar to

Species 37. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio pliciferus. Un. testa subelonyato-ovatd, veiitri- cosissiiiid, poslice decUvi-acitminatd, copiose verrucoso- yranatd, (/rams ad nream posticam in plicis radianti- hus ; olivaceo-nigrd, itUus cupreo-purpured.

The plaited Unio. Shell somewhat elongately ovate, very ventricose, posteriorly slopingly acuminated, copiously wart-grained, grains on the posterior area in radiating folds; olive-black, interior coppery- purple.

Tea, Trans. Anier. Pliil. See. 1S36; Obs. vol. ii. p. 61. pi. 17. f 53.

Ilab. Jlexieo.

Characterized by the same granular sculpture as the preceding species, the gnuns on the posterior area ran- ging in radiating folds ; the shell is of peculiarly ventricose growth.

Species 3S. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio Dokfeiiillianus. I'n. testa subqundrnlo-rotHndiU gibbosd, postici fexiwso-angnlatd, tr/ii/catd, sjjaraim tiibercidatd, tii/je/ridis interdiiM vi.r ukIUs ; intense olivaced. DoRFEniLLE's Unio. Shell somcwhat squarely rouiuled, gibbous, posteriorly ilexuotisly angled, and truncated, sparingly tidjercled, sometimes scarcely any ; dark olive. Lea, Trans. x\mer. Phii. Soc. 1836 ; Obs. vol. ii. p. 73.

pi. 17. f. 54. Ifab. Ohio River, North America.

A moderately t\d)ercled shell, rudely flexuously trun- cated on the posterior side.

Species 39. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio corium. Un. iestd subqitadraio-oblongd, depressias- culd, postice Jkviwse obtuse angulald, Iruncatd, con- centrice subrude plicatd, circa umbones dense verrucoso- granatd ; sordide olivaced, intus palUde rosaceo-pur- purascente. The shagreen Unio. Shell somewhat squarely oblong, rather depressed, posteriorly flexuously obtusely angled and truncated, concentrically rather rudely plicated, around the umboes closely wart-grained ; dull olive, interior pale rose-purple. Hab. Chiapa, Mexico.

The form of this shell is too widely distinct from that which we have figured as Mr. Lea's U. pliciferus, to allow of it Ijcing regarded as the same species, but it is impos- sible to foresee whether they might not be connected by an extended series of specimens.

August, 1864.



II N I 0

Spec-ies ii). Qhii. Ci.ini.iir.) Unio HIPPOP^US. Uh. ksld ublouyu-uvuld, ijibboniusCKld, iiiilice brevissimu, postici obtuse aiifjidatCi, ubnoleth riule pUcatd ; castaneo-brunned. The uokse-foot Unio. Shell oblong-ovate, rather gib- l>ui.is, anteriorly very short, posteriorly obtusely an- gled, obsoletely rudely plicated ; chestiiut-browu. Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, Second Series, vol. x. pi. 1.

f. 1; Obs. vol. iv. p. 41. Ilab. Lake Erie, North America.

Of a peculiarly gibijose oblong-ovate lunu, largely ob- liquely plaited, but the plaits are almost obsolete.

Species 41. (Fig. a, b, JIu?. Cuming.) Unio GIBBOSUS. Un. Usld nitbubloiiyo-urntu, jdiis lui/ius caiwiformi, aiiiice breviuimd, po-^/ic- (Irrliri-aciniti- imtd, vd comprfsse expansd, binidinliiit nidc Inbcrcn- lald ; oUcactu-Inkd, viridi niiidi limari-radlatd. The gibbous Unio. Shell somewhat oblong-ovate, more or less wedge-shaped, anteriorly very short, poste- riorly slopingly aeuuiiiialed, or conipressly expanded,

biradiately rudely tubercled ; olive-yellow, neatly li-

IUfinesuue, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. v. p. 387.

Ilab. North America.

The two forms of this species here tigured show how materially the shell varies in its posterior growth.

Species 42. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio perlensis. Un. testa suboblomjo-ovatd, crassd, ffibbosissimd, postici arciiato-truncald, oblique pernm- pliter plicatd, plicis versus iiiargiueM plus n/i/nis obso- letis ; intense oUvaceo-uigrd.

The solid Unio. Shell somewhat oblong-ovate, thick, very gibbous, posteriorly arouately truncated, ob- licpiely very largely plicated, plaits more or less ob- .solete towards the margin ; dark olive-black.

Conrad, Anthony, MS. in Mus. Cuming.

Ihb. North America.

Remarkable for its short, very gibbous jiruwth.

August, 1864.


UN 10.

Plate XII.

Species 43. (Mus. Cuming.) Unio bullatus. Tin. testa subcordato-orbiculari, postice quadrato-truncatd, promiscue (iniildo-verrticosd, ver- rucis ad latus podkuvi plicato-radiantibus ; oUvaceo-

The bubbled Unio. Shell somewhat cordately orbieu- lar, posteriorly squarely truncated, promiscuously tumidly warted, warts plicately radiating on the posterior side ; olive brown.

Kafinesqde, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. v. p. 287. Unio jmstulosiis. Lea.

JIab. North America.

A subrotund shell, rather prominent at the umboes,

s(|uarely truncated on the posterior side.

Species 44. (]\Ius. Cnuiing.)

Unio irroeatus. Uti. testa subtrigouo-corduld, postice arciiato-declivi, concentrice varicoso-lii-atd, liris mo- dice nodulatis ; lutescente-olivaced, punctis viridibits copiosH radiald.

'I'he bedewed Unio. Shell somewhat triangularly cor- date posteriorly arcuately sloping, concentrically va- ricosely ridged, ridges moderately noduled ; yellow- ish-olive, copiously rayed with green dots.

Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1827 ; Obs. vol. i. p. 11. pi. 5. f. 5.

llnb. North America.

It appears to be a character in this species that the radiatmg bands of green are composed of numerous small dots.

Species 45. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio stegarius. Uti. testa suborbicidari, depressiuscidd, medio modice concavo-jlexuosu, postice. snbtnoicatd, concentrice rnriroso-Hn/tii. prnfini^ irretpitariter ver- rucosa; liifesreiite-olivdci'd, piinvtif: ririilib/is rupiosi' radiatd.

The bedecked Unio. Shell nearly orbicular, rather depressed, moderately concavely flexuous in tin mid- dle, posteriorly slightly truncated, concentrically \a- ricosely ridged, profusely irregularly wartcd ; ydluw- ish-olive, copiously rayed with green dots.

Eafinesque, Mou. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. Brux. 1S20, vol. v. p. 287.

Hab. North America.

Very like the preceding species in details of character.

but of quite a ditt'erent form.

Species 46. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio PERNODO-SUS. Z7«. trxlil suhipiadrdio-omld, ^ declivi-expansd, deiiide triincutd, tnmido-veri verrucis ad aream poslicaiii plicnlo-riiJiinilibn. tescente-oVu-nced.

The mucu-knotted Unio. Shell somcuhat s(| ovate, posteriorly slopingly expanded, then cated, tumidly warted, warts plicately radiali the posterior area ; yellowish-olive.

Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, Second Series, vol. \. Obs. vol. iv. p. 45. pi. .3. f. 8.

Hab. North Carolina, North xUncrica.

The posterior side ha- form, and its area is espei ranging in radiating folds

•r qu

August, 1864.


Sowerty, del , etliUi

^mce] it B rooks, Imp .

UN 10

I'l^. 4/. ■II. U. nodifenis, Conrail, i r. ScJioolcraflensk, clescri

uodiileil vavifty of iit PI. I. Sp. 3.

Species 48. (Mas. Cuming.)

Umo INTEKMEDU'S. U)i. testu ■Vibquadrato-ovaiti, de- pressiuscidci, jjostici Jlexitoso-conlractd, concenlrict: pUcato-Hniid, verritcosn, verrncis ad aream pusticum pUcatu-radiantibus ; aurantio-liitfscente, viridi pj-ofme punctata.

■J'UE INTERMEDIATE Uxio. Shell somewluit squarely ovate, ratlier depresseol, po,l(riiuly ilcxuously con- tracted, concentrically plicalil\ liJ-vd, warted, warts on the posterior area pliiati ly i.idi.iiinL; ; orange- yellow, profusely dotted with green.

CoNKAD, Anthony, MS. in Mus. Cuming.

l£ab. North America.

A prettily painted species, conspicuous tracted on the posterior side.

flexuously con-


'J. (Mus. Cuming. I Uu. testa oblique


u Tavoyensis. Un. testa oblique ovald, postice declici-dilatatd et obtuse angulaid, acute midato-cor- rugatd, rugis versus marginem. ventralem evanidis ; sordide oliraced.

Tavoy Unio. Shell obliquely ovate, posteriorly slopingly dilated and obtusely angled, sharply zigzag wrinkled, wrinkles fading towards the ventral mar- gin ; dull olive. UouLD, Pro. Nat. Hist. Soe. Boston, 1843, vol. i. p. 138.

Otia, Conch, p. 189. Hab. Tavoy, Burmah ; llev. F. Mason.

This eastern Unio, it will be seen, type from the American species.

totally ditferent

Fig. ol>. The normal form of U. cicati-irosus, of teristic produced variety is given at I'l. \'

Species 51. (JIus. Cuming.) Unio NODELATUS. Uu. testa su/mrbicu/ari, pox/ici- quu-

drato-alatd, tuberculato-uodulatu. midiilis ai/iplis, pnii-

cis, hitescente-olivaced. The noddled Unio. Shell nearly r>rliicular, posteriorly

squarely winged, tuberculurly noduled, uodulr~ large,

few ; yellowish-olive. Rafinesque, Mon. Coq. de la riv. Ohio, Ami. Oen. Se.

Phys. Brux. 1820, vol. v. p. 287. Ilab. North America.

Quadrately winged on the posterior side with llir nodules few and large.

Species 52. (JIus. Cuming.)

Unio states. Un. testa snbtrigond, c

Jhruosi rolundato-angulatd, delude tru.

rerrucatd ; virescente-olivacea .

The stirkup Unio. Sliell somewhat tria

posteriorly flexuously rotundately angle

cated, obscurely warted ; greenish-olive

Lea, Trans. Araer."phil. Soe. 1830, Obs. \

pi. 7. f. 8. Ilab. Alabama, North America.

A shell of solid growth, contracted and U on the posterior side.

ssn. po.s ',td, oby,

This remarkably lobed shell i of which the female is given al I'l

de U.JIe.



Sowerby, del. e tilth.



Species 54. (Mus. Ciiiiiiiig.) Unio Rangianus. Vn. ti'std siihohlomjo-ovnld, pustice

llcxuoso-prodiwld, obsolete radiatim tnhercidald ; tides-

i-ente-oUvitced, viridi linean-radiatd. Rang's Unio. Shell rather obloiig-ovnte, posteriorly

flexiiously produced, obsoletely radiatcly tubercled ;

yellowish-olive, linearly rayed with grecii/ Lea, Trans. .Vincr. Phil. Soc. 1S37, Ohs. vol. ii. p. 1)5. pi.

IS. f. 56. //,,A. Ohio Kiv. r, North Aincrii-:i.



Lea, Trans. Amcr. I'liil. Soc. ISSH. Olis. vol. i. p. MCk pi. 17. 1'. 4k Unio nexus, Say. Ilab. Tennessee River, North Anicricn.

A peculiarly gibbous species, in which the posterior angle bulges out on either side, as in the typical form of Hi/ssoarca.


ike r


with the tubeirh'

Species 55. (Mus. Cuming.) L'nio PENITI'S. f'n. testa snt)trii)Ono-oblongd, yibbosis-

shim, postici Jlej-iioso-tumidd et radiatim incisd, delude

lute truncatd ; lidescente-olivaced. The tailed Unio. Shell somewhat triangularly oblong,

very gibbous, posteriorly flexuously swollen and

olive. CoNiiAD, Freslnvater Shells, p. 'i'-^. pi. ">. f. 1 Ilab. Alabama, North America.

Distinguished by a produced swelling of tlie posterior ;ni"le. \vlii<'h is radiatelv incised.

Species 5G. (Mus. Cuming.)

Unio INTEURUPTI'S. Un. testa arcntito-securif orm i, postice lamido-aiigulatd, deinde declivi-truncald, medio sidi- compressd, ad aiujulmn radiatim crisputo-sidcatd ; tiUescente-oHvaced, viridi interrnple lineari-radiatd.

The interrupted Unio. Shell arcuately wedge-shaped, posteriorly tumidly angled, then slopingly truncated, rather compresseil in tlie middle, railialely erLspately grooved at the angle ; yello« ish-nlive, interruptedly linearly rayed with green.

Rafinesque, Moil. C^ocj. de la riv. Ohio, Ann. Gen. Sc. I'hys. Brux. 1S2U, vol. v. p. 2S7. I:iiiu breridi;,s. Lea.

Ilul,. Ohio Uivei-. North America.

ipresseit sliell, arena tlie angle of which is

curved do .dIV swolle


(:\Ius. Ci

Unio Auc.efokmis. Un. testa oblomjo-eijhildforiiii, ijih-

tjosissimd, postice tiimido-anijuUild, deiiide tatissime

truncatd ; sordid!; otivaced. The Arca-shaped Unio. Shell oblong-boat-sluiped,

very gibbous, posteriorly tumidly angled, then very

broadly truncated ; dark olive.

Species 58. (Mus. Cuming.) Unio Sowerbyanvs. Uii. testa triffono-cordatd, pos/ici fexiwso-iinpressd et radiatim sulcata, aiitice laviijald , intense olivaced. Sowekby's Unio. Shell triangularly cordate, posteri<)rl\ flexuously impressed and radiately grooved, ante, riorly smooth ; dark oli\e. Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ISiJi, Ohs. vol. i. p. ISO

pi. 10. f. 2S. Ilab. Tennessee, North America.

Striately t;innved in a very <'liai'acteristic manner on tin posterior side, wliieli is